Spots, redness, itching, flaking, swelling, lesions, blisters and even blisters are signs of some skin diseases, which are allergic, autoimmune and affective. Although it is not communicable, it leaves marks, discomfort, pain and stigmas not only in appearance, but also in self-esteem and affecting the quality of life.
says Joanna Dark Deniz, MD, dermatologist, trichologist, scientific director of the SBME (Brazilian Society of Aesthetic Medicine) and director of the SBC (Brazilian Hair Society).
However, the opposite also happens, that is, skin diseases affect mental health, so psychological monitoring is recommended. In addition, it is always important to consult with specialists.
“People often try homemade alternatives or non-specialized instructions, waste time, and don’t treat properly,” says Francisco Lo Fossi, MD, dermatologist, director of the SBCD (Brazilian Society of Dermatologic Surgery).
The tests are necessary to rule out hypotheses and use the correct treatment. To clarify, Marco Tulio Cavalcante Oliveira, dermatologist at the Walter Candeo University Hospital, UFC Hospital Complex (Federal University of Ceará), associated with Ebserh (Brazilian Hospital Services Company), cites Mycosis fungoides which, despite its appearance and ringworm name, It has nothing to do with a yeast infection, but it is a type of cancer.
Here he learns about 11 skin conditions and how to treat them:
What it is: An autoimmune disorder that manifests as thick reddish plaques beneath white scales all over the body and on the scalp.
Symptoms: itching, pain, burning, scaling, swelling and joint stiffness in the most severe cases.
Treatment: Therapeutic options include creams, ointments, phototherapy and medications, as well as daily moisturizing of the skin to restore and maintain the physiological balance of the skin barrier. Products with emollient, regenerative, soothing, anti-inflammatory and decongestant power, with hypoallergenic, non-comedogenic, alcohol-free and fragrance-free properties, are indicated to ward off feelings of discomfort, redness and burning.
Atopic Eczema or Atopic Dermatitis
What it is: An inflammatory process caused by genetic and immunological factors. It appears on the face, folds of the arms and legs, and affects children more. They are usually associated with a history of allergic rhinitis and asthma.
Symptoms: Lesions begin as red marks with small water bubbles appearing on the surface, which, due to tearing, ooze clear fluid, characteristic of the subacute phase of eczema on both sides of the body. The appearance is thick. Itching is the main symptom.
Treatment: Hydration to maintain the protective barrier, use of prebiotics that help restore the skin’s natural defense flora, use of cotton clothing, avoid aggressive perfumes and soaps, and a quick shower. Topical medications, such as moisturizing creams and skin-protecting trainers, and corticosteroids to reduce inflammation, as well as oral antihistamines and other medications, such as immunosuppressants and even immunosuppressants.
Eczema or Contact Dermatitis
What it is: An allergic reaction of a living organism after skin contact with a certain substance: foods, such as fruits, in nature, chemicals, cleaning products, cosmetics, such as makeup, nail polish, and metals in jewelry.
Symptoms: Reactions that manifest as eczema -red plaque lesions- on the hands, face, neck and feet.
Treatment: Avoid contact with the substance that caused the eczema.
What it is: Autoimmune phenomena, emotional changes or trauma trigger or aggravate the appearance of white spots on the body. There are cycles of color loss and stages in which it develops more advanced. Pigmented areas enlarge over time.
Symptoms: loss of color resulting from the deficiency or total absence of melanocytes, the cells responsible for the formation of melanin, the pigment that gives skin its color, in the extremities of the body, such as hands and feet, nose and mouth. , can cause tenderness and pain.
Treatment: It is possible to induce repigmentation with derivatives of vitamin D and corticosteroids. UVA and UVB phototherapy, laser techniques, as well as surgical techniques or melanocyte transplantation are some of the strategies used.
It is advisable to avoid clothing that produces friction or pressure on the skin, to reduce sun exposure and control stress.
What it is: Benign and chronic vascular infections caused by genetic predisposition and stress. It affects the central skin of the face, with periods of remission or exacerbation. Elevated levels of depression, anxiety, and emotional trauma exacerbate symptoms. It affects adults, especially women, between 30 and 50 years of age. In men, the condition is more severe and develops with rhinophyma, a gradual enlargement of the nose due to thickening and expansion of the follicles.
Symptoms: Sensitive, dry skin that becomes red and irritated by salicylic and retinoic acids and dermatological products in general. Gradually the redness (erythema) develops into permanent thin vessels (telangiectasia), acne-like papules and pustules appear, with occasional edema and nodules, hence the name acne rosacea, which has been misused. Each irritation leads to an inflammatory reaction, which greatly worsens the initial condition.
Treatment: avoid fragrances in formulations, as well as allergens: parabens, menthol, eucalyptus and mint oils, for example. In the routine, include a mild soap for cleaning, without abrasive ingredients and a sunscreen with high protection against UVA and UVB rays, suitable for the condition, more fluid and with a dry finish. It is also known as a laser or low energy light, such as pulsed light.
What it is: Causes include food allergies, insect and medication bites, sun exposure, physical trauma, tight clothing, and even intense physical exercise of autoimmune origin.
Symptoms: It is characterized by the formation of hives, which are reddish and limited elevations accompanied by itching or burning on the hands, feet, legs and arms. When accompanied by more severe edema (swelling) of the eyelids, mucous membranes of the eyes, lips and face, it is called angioedema and can progress to the respiratory tract and stomach, causing difficulty breathing and swallowing, as well as abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea
Treatment: It consists of the detection and elimination of the causes and medications such as antihistamines, corticosteroids, immunosuppressants and immunobiologicals, depending on the origin and severity.
Herpes (Herpes Zoster)
What it is: A contagious skin disease caused by a virus called varicella zoster that affects one area of the body, usually one side. There is severe pain at the site after injuries (neuropathy) if nerve damage has occurred and is sometimes resistant to pain relievers.
Symptoms: red spots with many painful blisters (pus balls). The bullae rupture after 5 to 7 days, and tissue necrosis may occur. It also causes itching.
Treatment: Oral antivirals, anti-inflammatories, and analgesics are recommended for neuralgia. The recommended prevention is the attenuated virus vaccine, for people over 50 years of age, regardless of whether they have been vaccinated against chickenpox or already have herpes zoster. A new version for people with weakened immune systems is now available in Brazil.
What it is: Small growths, found in the neck, groin, and armpits, the same color as the skin, also called fibrous epithelioid polyps. It is associated with insulin resistance and is often associated with another skin lesion, acanthosis nigricans, which is characterized by darkening and thickening of the same areas.
Symptoms: Appearances are benign, and if friction occurs with clothing, they become irritated.
Treatment: Removal can be performed in a dermatological clinic using different techniques. Healthy habits, such as physical activity and a balanced diet, help control glucose and prevent it from resurfacing.
What it is: An inflammatory process in the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. They range from simple lesions to inflammatory, with more cysts, which can leave scars and keloids.
Symptoms: discomfort, formation of blackheads, inflammation and small cysts. It comes in 4 degrees of severity:
- The first degree is milder, it is called acne comedones and it is characterized by oily skin, blackheads and little inflammation.
- grade II is more inflammatory and pustular (yellow dots).
- Grade III is more severe, with the formation of small cysts and nodules.
- Grade 4, also called acne blemishes, is more severe, in which cysts and pustules can continually form large, painful lesions or cysts on the face, neck, trunk, and other areas of the body.
Treatment: It is carried out according to the level of severity and the use of topical hygiene and cleaning products, such as antiseptic soaps and benzoyl peroxide-based soaps, and the use of topical acids, alpha hydroxy acids, to improve and control the appearance of the fur. Fat, and therefore reduces the production of sebum, which is food for bacteria. In other cases, oral medications such as antibiotics and isotretinoin should be included.
What it is: Hair loss and baldness due to various causes, depending on its type: hereditary, hormonal, immunological, infectious, inflammatory, metabolic, biochemical, pharmacological, concomitant clinical diseases, chemical treatments and cosmetic use.
Symptoms: Baldness (male pattern baldness) has a genetic origin and is more common in men, there is a lack of hair on the top and front of the head. In women it reaches the top and crown of the head.
Alopecia areata, on the other hand, is sudden hair loss with single or multiple round areas on the scalp, beard, eyelashes, and eyebrows.
Telogen effluvium, increased daily hair loss due to stress, among other factors, in its acute or chronic version whose symptoms are a decrease in the volume of hair length, and scarring alopecia caused by inflammatory processes of the scalp are other pathologies.
Treatment: It is carried out according to the cause and manifestation, taking into account age, sex, time of evolution, comorbidities and family history. There is no medicine that works for all cases. In baldness, for example, the most common type of alopecia, based on the correct diagnosis, drugs can be used, in lotion, pills and injections in the scalp, as well as devices with low light and even surgical indication, with hair transplantation.
What it is: A multi-causal disease caused by several factors combined. There are two main types of skin cancer: melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer. The most common is a non-melanoma associated with sun exposure, especially uncontrolled and long-term exposure, in light-skinned people. Smoking and genetic predisposition are also risk factors. In the case of melanoma, sun exposure is related, but genes are important.
Symptoms: A non-melanoma appears as a skin-colored mark or erythema (reddish), similar to blisters that do not heal. Basal cell carcinoma appears shiny and profuse, may ulcerate, is small, flat, or even bulky in size, and has extensive vascularity, ie, blood vessels visible on the surface.
Squamous cell carcinoma is often similar to basal cell carcinoma, but has a rougher surface with scaling or crusting. Both types have a longer development and take longer to heal, so they are generally diagnosed later.
Melanoma is characterized by pigmented lesions, slow or fast growing, present in covered or uncovered areas, associated with existing or recent moles, as well as slow-growing and extensive spots in areas of the plantar medulla, especially in patients with older phototypes. long (black, brown or Asian people).
Moles that change color, shape, or size, that bleed, hurt, or itch, and sores or blisters that don’t heal are possible signs of skin cancer.
Treatment: Treatment of non-melanoma is surgical and eventually the patient undergoes chemotherapy. For melanoma-type cancers, when diagnosed early, surgical treatment is effective. However, there are procedures with targeted therapy and immunotherapy.