Intelligent engineering systems:
/gftqhoxn4eo. A new family of intelligent engineering systems has emerged from the close integration of cyber and physical systems due to significant advancements in smart sensors and actuators in biological systems and computation and networking in cyber systems. Cyber-Physical Systems, a relatively new idea, are becoming increasingly vital for all essential IT and technology participants. CPS is defined here, along with its expected development.
What are Cyber-Physical Systems?
In its simplest form, a Cyber-Physical System (CPS) is a platform with a mechanical system operated by computer algorithms and strongly connected to the Internet and its networked users.
Intelligent sensors and actuators link the platform’s physical-mechanical and software components. Thus, CPS is a collection of physical devices (‘hardware’) controlled by computer algorithms, most of which are software./gftqhoxn4eo.
CPS devices include personal computers and any physical device controlled by an algorithm. CPS would represent all digital computers, not only “standard” PCs but everything that comes with an electronic system that uses digital algorithms or can be an extension of such systems.
Spatial and temporal modes./gftqhoxn4eo.
In Cyber-Physical Systems, physical (or “hardware”) and software components are intimately linked and can operate in various spatial and temporal modes. They can behave differently depending on the situation.
Algorithms and physical components
Computer algorithms and physical components are seamlessly integrated into Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs). These systems connect digital and analog devices, interfaces, sensors, networks, actuators, and computers to the natural world, artificial objects, and buildings.
Cyber-physical systems transform how people interact with the natural world like the Internet did with the information. The magnitude and variety of these systems provide substantial technical challenges.
New technical methods:
New technical methods are needed to define their design, manage and govern them in a scalable, efficient, and secure manner, and guarantee their use.
Edge Computing vs. Fog Computing
Designing Cyber-Physical Systems:
No standard design practice includes all engineering and artistic areas in CPS, making concept designing complex. Recently, disciplines have used co-simulation to collaborate without changing design methods./gftqhoxn4eo.
A cyber-physical production system can be designed and deployed using the 5C architecture: connection, conversion, cyber, cognition, and configuration.
Connection—Devices can self-connect and sense their activities.
Conversion- Data from self-connected devices and sensors is analyzing the features of critical concerns with self-aware capabilities, and machines can use the self-aware information to self-predict potential issues.
Cyber – These instrumented features
Cyber – These instrumented features and approaches to defining the machine health pattern better generate a “clone” for each machine. The “clone” can self-compare peer-to-peer performance./gftqhoxn4eo for further synthesis.
Cognition – Users will see an “infographic” showing their self-assessment and self-evaluation results.
Configuration – The machine or production system can be configured for robust performance based on priority and risk.
Challenges of Cyber-Physical Systems
The following are Cyber-Physical System challenges:
Abstraction Real-Time Systems
Due to many sensors, actuators, and computers that interchange diverse forms of data, we need a new framework to abstract the salient properties of systems in real time. A CPS network’s topology may vary dynamically due to physical reasons.
Therefore, a novel distributed real-time computing and communication mechanisms are needed to accurately reflect the critical interactions among CPS elements and provide the required performance, such as safety, security, resilience, and dependability./gftqhoxn4eo.
Security, Safety, and Durability
Unlike logical computing in cyber systems, physical interactions are uncertain due to environmental unpredictability, equipment failures, and security threats.
Therefore, CPS system robustness, security, and safety are crucial. CPS can achieve this goal by using physical information about the system’s position and time.
Modeling and controlling hybrid systems
Cyberspace changes according to discreet logic, but space changes in real time. Therefore, CPS design requires a rigorous hybrid system modeling and control mechanism encompassing physical and cyber aspects.
For example, a new theoretical framework that links continuous-time systems with event-triggered logical systems is needed to end the feedback control loop.
This paradigm’s temporal scales (from microseconds to months or years) and dimensional orders (from on-chip to planetary size) should be thoroughly explored.
See also Hybrid Cloud Computing:/gftqhoxn4eo.
Time-based and event-based computation, transmission faults, time-varying delays, and system reconfiguration hinder networked control in CPS. CPS researchers’ network protocol challenges are ensuring mission-critical quality-of-service via wireless networks, balancing control law design and real-time computing restrictions, bridging continuous and discrete-time systems, and ensuring large-scale system dependability and robustness.
Over a decade has been spent studying wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor-actuator networks (WSAN) are a novel topic that has received limited attention, notably from CPS.
When building sensor-actuator networks, consider the interactions between sensors, actuators, physical systems, and computational elements. Biological aspects, especially actuators’ effects, have not been adequately explored in system design.
Verification and validation
Hardware, software, operating systems, and middleware must undergo significant compositional verification and testing to meet CPS standards. CPS must surpass cyberinfrastructure in dependability.
For instance, the aviation industry knows certification takes over half the resources needed to create new systems. The most common method for safe system certification in this field is overdesign./gftqhoxn4eo.
The overdesign method is intractable for today’s large-scale complex systems. New models, techniques, and tools are needed to incorporate compositional verification and validation of software and other components across the design cycle.
Cyber-Physical Systems in Practice
Let’s look at some real-world applications of Cyber-Physical Systems, keeping in mind that many CPS-based systems use wireless network sensors to monitor the environment and send data to a central node.
Other CPS technologies include autonomous automotive systems (AAS), distributed robots, smart grids, and automated pilot avionics./gftqhoxn4eo.
Robotics Distributed 2. ManufacturingWater Distribution4. Smart Greenhouses5. Healthcare6. Transportation
CPS Applications in Real Life:
Distributed robotics uses CPS, as shown by MIT’s distributed robot gardening system. A collection of robots manages a tomato garden using distributed sensing, manipulation, navigation, and wireless networking.
Cyber-Physical Systems are generally utilized in industrial production to self-monitor. The production process is considerably improved by information shared between equipment, business systems, supply chains, suppliers, and customers. Smart manufacturing. This increases product security and traceability by increasing supply chain visibility and control.
Automation in water distribution systems has increased. Due to CPS. Our homes get water from pipes, wells, pumps, tanks, and reservoirs. Water distribution system functions are monitored using devices. For instance, a sensor can measure water overflow from a pressure pipe or tank. The valve opening is automated via programmable control circuitry.